Free history Kindle books for 04 May 15

Reflections on the Revolution in France

by Edmund Burke

Chios Classics brings literature’s greatest works back to life for new generations. All our books contain a linked table of contents.

Reflections on the Revolution in France is a book written by Edmund Burke, an Irish political theorist. The book is considered to be one of the best critiques against one of the most famous revolutions in history.



Captains of the Civil War: A Chronicle of the Blue and the Gray

by William Wood

Sixty years ago today the guns that thundered round Fort Sumter began the third and greatest modern civil war fought by English-speaking people. This war was quite as full of politics as were the other twoâ??the War of the American Revolution and that of Puritan and Cavalier. But, though the present Chronicle never ignores the vital correlations between statesmen and commanders, it is a book of warriors, through and through.

I gratefully acknowledge the indispensable assistance of Colonel G. J. Fiebeger, a West Point expert, and of Dr. Allen Johnson, chief editor of the series and Professor of American History at Yale.

WILLIAM WOOD,

Late Colonel commanding 8th Royal Rifles, and Officer-in-charge, Canadian Special Mission Overseas.

QUEBEC,

April 18, 1921.



A Journey in Southern Siberia

by Jeremiah Curtin

Jeremiah Curtin, writer, polyglot, ethnographer and folklorist, travelled in 1900 to central Siberia to study the religion and folklore of the Buryat people. The Buryats are one branch of the Mongols, who at one point conquered a large swath of Asia, Europe and India. Their home is around Lake Baikal in central Siberia. The first third of this book is a travelogue which describes Curtin’s Siberian journey; this is a fascinating glimpse at Tsarist Siberia just before the Revolution. The last two-thirds of the book is an extraordinary record of the mythology of the Buryats. The lore is of great interest, resembling in its fluid, dreamlike narrative the Native American tales. There are many elements found elsewhere through Asia and Europe such as epic horses (and horse sacrifices), battles with giants, a World-mountain and ‘the water of life’, (see The Epic of Gilgamesh). There are also unique elements such as heroes with oracular books embedded in their bodies.
This one of the last of Curtin’s books, published after his death in 1906. Etexts of the full text of other books by Curtin at this site are Myths and Folk-lore of Ireland, Tales of the Fairies and of the Ghost World and Creation Myths of Primitive America.



The Art of War for Today: Vol 1

by Doug Nash

We use the principles of the Art of War everyday, even if we have never heard of the book. It makes sense that we find out what these principles are so we can use them better. The better we use them, the more success we can enjoy.

Sun Tzu’s ideas on strategies and tactics have been read across the world for centuries. The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise, a definitive work on military strategies and tactics that was written over 2500 years ago. Today they can still be applied not just to war, business and politics but in every facet of your life.

Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting. Plan for peace, conflict avoidance while preparing for war, victory. Sun Tzu preferred peace but he knew everyone would have to fight battles so he wrote for that too.

With a better understanding, make better choices to live a better life.



The Auslander Brigade

by Colin Evans

1942.

On the orders of Reichführer Heinrich Himmler himself, Stabfeldwebel Kubal Springer is tasked with forming an â??alien formation’ consisting of foreign POWs – in a flagrant breach of the Geneva Convention.

They become The Auslander Brigade.

The POWs are taken from the horrors of Torgau and press-ganged into service for the Fatherland to fight on the Eastern Front against Russia.

They find themselves forced on a journey to Sennelager, the newly-formed German training centre, against their will and in sub-zero temperatures.

Once they arrive they are subjected to intense, gruelling training by the Germans, under harsh conditions.

From the horror of Torgau Prison to Stalingrad and beyond, these Englishmen became unwilling volunteers, trapped between the Soviet artillery fire and the â??Chain Dogs’ of the German Field Police.

They must fight their survival like cornered rats under the jackboot, in a frozen land of hatred and hopelessness.

How far could these men push themselves in the fight for survival?

And how far would they go to stay alive?

‘The Auslander Brigade’ is a thrilling action adventure novel that explores one of the most brutal stories of World War Two.

‘A gripping story of courage against impossible odds.’ – Tom Kasey, best-selling author of ‘Cold Kill’.

Colin D. Evans, an ex-soldier himself, portrays the war drama with the conviction of a soldier who has seen action in wartime. He has served with the H.M. Forces since he was sixteen, in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Canada, Gibraltar and the Falklands.

Endeavour Press is the UK’s leading independent publisher of digital books.



Collection of Nebraska Pioneer Reminiscences (Illustrated)

by Nebraska Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution

This Book of Nebraska Pioneer Reminiscences is issued by the Daughters of the American Revolution of Nebraska, and dedicated to the daring, courageous, and intrepid men and womenâ??the advance guard of our progressâ??who, carrying the torch of civilization, had a vision of the possibilities which now have become realities.

To those who answered the call of the unknown we owe the duty of preserving the record of their adventures upon the vast prairies of “Nebraska the Mother of States.”

“In her horizons, limitless and vast
Her plains that storm the senses like the sea.”

Reminiscence, recollection, personal experienceâ??simple, true storiesâ??this is the foundation of History.

Rapidly the pioneer story-tellers are passing beyond recall, and the real story of the beginning of our great commonwealth must be told now.

The memories of those pioneers, of their deeds of self-sacrifice and devotion, of their ideals which are our inheritance, will inculcate patriotism in the children of the future; for they should realize the courage that subdued the wilderness. And “lest we forget,” the heritage of this past is a sacred trust to the Daughters of the American Revolution of Nebraska.

The invaluable assistance of the Nebraska State Historical Society, and the members of this Book Committee, Mrs. C. S. Paine and Mrs. D. S. Dalby, is most gratefully acknowledged.

Lula Correll Perry

(Mrs. Warren Perry)



Architecture: Gothic and Renaissance (Illustrated)

by T. Roger Smith

THE history, the features, and the most famous examples of European architecture, during a period extending from the rise of the Gothic, or pointed, style in the twelfth century to the general depression which overtook the Renaissance style at the close of the eighteenth, form the subject of this little volume. I have endeavoured to adopt as free and simple a mode of treatment as is compatible with the accurate statement of at least the outlines of so very technical a subject.

Though it is to be hoped that many professional students of architecture will find this hand-book serviceable to them in their elementary studies, it has been my principal endeavour to adapt it to the requirements of those who are preparing for the professional pursuit of the sister arts, and of that large and happily increasing number of students who pursue the fine arts as a necessary part of a complete liberal education, and who know that a solid and comprehensive acquaintance with art, especially if joined to some skill in the use of the pencil, the brush, the modelling tool, or the etching needle, will open sources of pleasure and interest of the most refined description.

The broad facts of all art history; the principles which underlie each of the fine arts; and the most precious or most noteworthy examples of each, ought to be familiar to every art student, whatever special branch he may follow. Beyond these limits I have not attempted to carry this account of Gothic and Renaissance architecture; within them I have endeavoured to make the work as complete as the space at my disposal permitted.

Some portions of the text formed part of two courses of lectures delivered before the students of the School of Military Engineering at Chatham, and are introduced here by the kind permission of Sir John Stokes. Many of the descriptive and critical remarks are transcripts of notes made by myself, almost under the shadow of the buildings to which they refer. It would, however, have been impossible to give a condensed view of so extended a subject had not every part of it been treated at much greater length by previous writers. The number and variety of the books consulted renders it impossible to make any other acknowledgment here than this general recognition of my indebtedness to their authors.

T. R. S.



Ivan the Terrible

by Kazimierz Waliszewski

Chios Classics brings literature’s greatest works back to life for new generations. All our books contain a linked table of contents.

Ivan the Terrible is an authoritative biography of the infamous Tsar, by noted historian Kazimierz Waliszewski.



Army of the Cumberland and the Battle of Stone’s River

by Gilbert C. Kniffin

EXCERPT:
The Army of the Ohio, after crowding into the space of six weeks more hard marching and fighting than fell to the lot of any other army in the United States during the summer of 1862, was, on the last of October, encamped in the vicinity of Bowling Green, Kentucky. General Bragg and Kirby Smith, turning Buell’s left flank, had invaded Kentucky, gained the rear of Buell, threatened his base at Louisville, and but for the vis inertia which always seemed to seize upon the Confederates when in sight of complete victory, would have captured Louisville. The battle of Perryville resulting in the hasty exit of the combined armies of Bragg and Smith through Cumberland Gap into East Tennessee, the deliberate sweep of Buell’s columns in their rear, the halt at Crab Orchard, and the return march towards Nashville are part of the events of an earlier chapter in the history of the rebellion. The occupation of East Tennessee by the Union Army had from the commencement of hostilities been an object dear to the great heart of President Lincoln. He had hoped for its accomplishment under General Sherman. It had been included in the instructions to General Buell, but eighteen months had passed and the Confederate flag still waved in triumph from the spire of the court-house at Knoxville. The retreat of the Confederate Army into East Tennessee in what was reported as a routed and disorganized condition had seemed like a favorable opportunity to carry out the long-cherished design of the Government. The movement of large armies across the country upon a map in the War Office, although apparently practicable, bore so little relation to actual campaigning as to have already caused the decapitation of more than one general.



At Ypres with Best-Dunkley

by Thomas Hope Floyd

EXCERPT (Foreword):
No doubt it will be thought that some apology is necessary for thrusting upon the public all this mass of matter, relating to many persons and episodes with whom and with respect to which they may feel that they are in no way concerned. I quite realize that my action may appear strange and uncalled for to the superficial observer. But I do not hold that view. I, personally, have always felt a desire to read this kind of literature. The Press does not cease to pour forth volumes of memoirs by leading and prominent personsâ??matter which is all wanted for a true understanding of the history of our times. But this is not enough. We require all the personal narratives we can get; and, in my opinion, the more personal and intimate, the better. We want narratives by obscure persons: we want to know and appreciate everybody’s outlook upon public events, whether that outlook be orthodox or unorthodox, conventional or unconventional. Only thus can we see the recent war in all its aspects.

The motives which have prompted me to publish this book have been well expressed by Dr. A. C. Benson in his essay on Authorship in From a College Window. In that volume there occurs the following striking passage:

“The wonderful thing to me is not that there is so much desire in the world to express our little portion of the joy, the grief, the mystery of it all, but that there is so little. I wish with all my heart that there was more instinct for personal expression; Edward Fitzgerald said that he wished that we had more lives of obscure persons; one wants to know what other people are thinking and feeling about it all; what joys they anticipate, what fears they sustain, how they regard the end and cessation of life and perception which waits for us all. The worst of it is that people are often so modest, they think that their own experience is so dull, so unromantic, so uninteresting. It is an entire mistake. If the dullest person in the world would only put down sincerely what he or she thought about his or her life, about work and love, religion and emotion, it would be a fascinating document. My only sorrow is that amateurs of whom I have spoken above will not do this; they rather turn to external and impersonal impressions, relate definite things, what they see on their travels, for instance, describing just the things which anyone can see. They tend to indulge in the melancholy labour of translation, or employ customary, familiar forms, such as the novel or the play. If only they would write diaries and publish them; compose imaginary letters; let one inside the house of self, instead of keeping one wandering in the park!”



Cuba, Old and New

by Albert G. Robinson

EXCERPT:
Christopher Columbus was a man of lively imagination. Had he been an ordinary, prosaic and plodding individual, he would have stayed at home combing wool as did his prosaic and plodding ancestors for several generations. At the age of fourteen he went to sea and soon developed an active curiosity about regions then unknown but believed to exist. There was even then some knowledge of western Asia, and even of China as approached from the west. Two and two being properly put together, the result was a reasonable argument that China and India could be reached from the other direction, that is, by going westward instead of eastward.

In the early autumn of the year 1492, Columbus was busy discovering islands in the Caribbean Sea region, and, incidentally, seeking for the richest of the group. From dwellers on other islands, he heard of one, called Cubanacan, larger and richer than any that he had then discovered. A mixture of those tales with his own vivid imagination produced a belief in a country of wide extent, vastly rich in gold and gems, and already a centre of an extensive commerce. Cruising in search of what he believed to be the eastern coast of Asia, he sighted the shore of Cuba on the morning of October 28, 1492. His journal, under date of October 24, states: “At midnight I tripped my anchors off this Cabo del Isleo de Isabella, where I was pitched to go to the island of Cuba, which I learn from these people is very large and magnificent, and there are gold and spices in it, and large ships and merchants. And so I think it must be the island of Cipango (Japan), of which they tell such wonders.” The record, under date of Sunday, 28th of October, states: “Continued for the nearest land of Cuba, and entered a beautiful estuary, clear of rocks and other dangers. The mouth of the estuary had twelve fathoms depth, and it was wide enough for a ship to work into.” Students have disagreed regarding the first Cuban port entered by Columbus. There is general acceptance of October 28 as the date of arrival. Some contend that on that day he entered Nipe Bay, while others, and apparently the greater number, locate the spot somewhat to the west of Nuevitas. Wherever he first landed on it, there is agreement that he called the island Juana, in honor of Prince Juan, taking possession “in the name of Christ, Our Lady, and the reigning Sovereigns of Spain.”



Animal Figures in the Maya Codices

by Alfred Tozzer

It has been thought desirable, for the advancement of the study of Maya hieroglyphs, that the interpretation of the conventionalized animal figures, which so frequently occur in the Maya codices, should be undertaken. The Peabody Museum Committee on Central American Research therefore requested Dr. A. M. Tozzer to prepare a paper on the subject, and to secure the valuable cooperation of Dr. Glover M. Allen, a zoologist familiar with the animals of Mexico and Central America, to aid in the identification of the various species of animals which under varying forms are used in connection with the glyphs.

While it is possible that some of the determinations given in this paper may require further confirmation, it is evident that the combined studies of Dr. Tozzer and Dr. Allen cannot fail to be useful to students of the Maya hieroglyphic writing.

F. W. Putnam.

Harvard University,

August, 1909.



Fresh Light from the Ancient Monuments

by A.H. Sayce

EXCERPT (Preface):
The object of this little book is explained by its title. Discovery after discovery has been pouring in upon us from Oriental lands, and the accounts given only ten years ago of the results of Oriental research are already beginning to be antiquated. It is useful, therefore, to take stock of our present knowledge, and to see how far it bears out that “old story” which has been familiar to us from our childhood. The same spirit of scepticism which had rejected the early legends of Greece and Rome had laid its hands also on the Old Testament, and had determined that the sacred histories themselves were but a collection of myths and fables. But suddenly, as with the wand of a magician, the ancient eastern world has been reawakened to life by the spade of the explorer and the patient skill of the decipherer, and we now find ourselves in the presence of monuments which bear the names or recount the deeds of the heroes of Scripture. One by one these “stones crying out” have been examined or more perfectly explained, while others of equal importance are being continually added to them.

What striking confirmations of the Bible narrative have been afforded by the latest discoveries will be seen from the following pages. In many cases confirmation has been accompanied by illustration. Unexpected light has been thrown upon facts and statements hitherto obscure, or a wholly new explanation has been given of some event recorded by the inspired writer. What can be more startling than the discovery of the great Hittite Empire, the very existence of which had been forgotten, and which yet once contended on equal terms with Egypt on the one side and Assyria on the other? The allusions to the Hittites in the Old Testament, which had been doubted by a sceptical criticism, have been shown to be fully in accordance with the facts, and their true place in history has been pointed out.
But the account of the Hittite Empire is not the only discovery of the last four or five years about which this book has to speak. Inscriptions of Sargon have cleared up the difficulties attending the tenth and eleventh chapters of Isaiah’s prophecies, and have proved that no “ideal” campaign of an “ideal” Assyrian king is described in them. The campaign, on the contrary, was a very real one, and when Isaiah delivered his prophecy the Assyrian monarch was marching down upon Jerusalem from the north, and was about to be “the rod” of God’s anger upon its sins. Ten years before the overthrow of Sennacherib’s army his father, Sargon, had captured Jerusalem, but a “remnant” escaped the horrors of the siege, and returned in penitence “unto the mighty God.”



Face to Face with Kaiserism

by James W. Gerard

In some measure this book is a continuation of MY FOUR YEARS IN GERMANY, the narrative here being carried up to the time of my return home, with some observations on the situation I have found in the United States.

What I want especially to impress upon the people of the United States is that we are at war because Germany invaded the United Statesâ??an invasion insidiously conceived and vigorously prosecuted for years before hostilities began;â??that this war is our war;â??that the sanctity of American freedom and of the American home depend upon what we do NOW.

James W. Gerard.

New York,

April First, 1918.



Great Astronomers (Illustrated)

by R. S. Ball

It has been my object in these pages to present the life of each astronomer in such detail as to enable the reader to realise in some degree the man’s character and surroundings; and I have endeavoured to indicate as clearly as circumstances would permit the main features of the discoveries by which he has become known.

There are many types of astronomersâ??from the stargazer who merely watches the heavens, to the abstract mathematician who merely works at his desk; it has, consequently, been necessary in the case of some lives to adopt a very different treatment from that which seemed suitable for others.

While the work was in progress, some of the sketches appeared in “Good Words.” The chapter on Brinkley has been chiefly derived from an article on the “History of Dunsink Observatory,” which was published on the occasion of the tercentenary celebration of the University of Dublin in 1892, and the life of Sir William Rowan Hamilton is taken, with a few alterations and omissions, from an article contributed to the “Quarterly Review” on Graves’ life of the great mathematician. The remaining chapters now appear for the first time. For many of the facts contained in the sketch of the late Professor Adams, I am indebted to the obituary notice written by my friend Dr. J. W. L. Glaisher, for the Royal Astronomical Society; while with regard to the late Sir George Airy, I have a similar acknowledgment to make to Professor H. H. Turner. To my friend Dr. Arthur A. Rambaut I owe my hearty thanks for his kindness in aiding me in the revision of the work.

R.S.B.

The Observatory, Cambridge.

October, 1895



Buried Cities: Pompeii, Olympia, Mycenae

by Jennie Hall

Do you like to dig for hidden treasure? Have you ever found Indian arrowheads or Indian pottery? I knew a boy who was digging a cave in a sandy place, and he found an Indian grave. With his own hands he uncovered the bones and skull of some brave warrior. That brown skull was more precious to him than a mint of money. Another boy I knew was making a cave of his own. Suddenly he dug into an older one made years before. He crawled into it with a leaping heart and began to explore. He found an old carpet and a bit of burned candle. They proved that some one had lived there. What kind of a man had he been and what kind of life had he livedâ??black or white or red, robber or beggar or adventurer? Some of us were walking in the woods one day when we saw a bone sticking out of the ground. Luckily we had a spade, and we set to work digging. Not one moment was the tool idle. First one bone and then another came to light and among them a perfect horse’s skull. We felt as though we had rescued Captain Kidd’s treasure, and we went home draped in bones.

Suppose that instead of finding the bones of a horse we had uncovered a gold-wrapped king. Suppose that instead of a deserted cave that boy had dug into a whole buried city with theaters and mills and shops and beautiful houses. Suppose that instead of picking up an Indian arrowhead you could find old golden vases and crowns and bronze swords lying in the earth. If you could be a digger and a finder and could choose your find, would you choose a marble statue or a buried bakeshop with bread two thousand years old still in the oven or a king’s grave filled with golden gifts? It is of such digging and such finding that this book tells.



Fifty Years In The Northwest (Illustrated)

by William Henry Carman Folsom

At the age of nineteen years, I landed on the banks of the Upper Mississippi, pitching my tent at Prairie du Chien, then (1836) a military post known as Fort Crawford. I kept memoranda of my various changes, and of many of the events transpiring. Subsequently, not, however, with any intention of publishing them in book form until 1876, when, reflecting that fifty years spent amidst the early and first white settlements, and continuing till the period of civilization and prosperity, itemized by an observer and participant in the stirring scenes and incidents depicted, might furnish material for an interesting volume, valuable to those who should come after me, I concluded to gather up the items and compile them in a convenient form.

As a matter of interest to personal friends, and as also tending to throw additional light upon my relation to the events here narrated, I have prefixed an account of my own early life for the nineteen years preceding my removal to the West, thus giving to the work a somewhat autobiographical form. It may be claimed that a work thus written in the form of a life history of a single individual, with observations from his own personal standpoint, will be more connected, clear and systematic in its narration of events than if it were written impersonally.

The period included in these sketches is one of remarkable transitions, and, reaching backward, in the liberty accorded to the historian, to the time of the first explorations by the Jesuits, the first English, French and American traders, is a period of transformation and progress that has been paralleled only on the shores of the New World. We have the transition from barbarism to civilization; we have the subjugation of the wilderness by the first settlers; the organization of territorial and state governments; an era of progress from the rude habits of the pioneer and trapper, to the culture and refinement of civilized states; from the wilderness, yet unmapped, and traversed only by the hardy pioneer in birch barks or dog sledges, to the cultivated fields, cobwebbed by railways and streams furrowed by steamers. It is something to have witnessed a part, even, of this wonderful transformation, and it is a privilege and a pleasure to record, even in part, its history.

I have quoted from the most correct histories within my reach, but the greater part of my work, or of that pertaining to the fifty years just passed, has been written from personal observation and from information obtained directly by interview with, or by written communications from, persons identified in some way with the history of the country. To those persons who have so freely and generously assisted me in the collection of material for this work, I hereby express my thanks. I have relied sparingly on traditions, and, where I have used them, have referred to them as such.



A Text-Book of the History of Architecture (Illustrated)

by Alfred D. F. Hamlin

The aim of this work has been to sketch the various periods and styles of architecture with the broadest possible strokes, and to mention, with such brief characterization as seemed permissible or necessary, the most important works of each period or style. Extreme condensation in presenting the leading facts of architectural history has been necessary, and much that would rightly claim place in a larger work has been omitted here. The danger was felt to be rather in the direction of too much detail than of too little. While the book is intended primarily to meet the special requirements of the college student, those of the general reader have not been lost sight of. The majority of the technical terms used are defined or explained in the context, and the small remainder in a glossary at the end of the work. Extended criticism and minute description were out of the question, and discussion of controverted points has been in consequence as far as possible avoided.

The illustrations have been carefully prepared with a view to elucidating the text, rather than for pictorial effect. With the exception of some fifteen cuts reproduced from Lübke’s Geschichte der Architektur (by kind permission of Messrs. Seemann, of Leipzig), the illustrations are almost all entirely new. A large number are fromAnchororiginal drawings made by myself, or under my direction, and the remainder are, with a few exceptions, half-tone reproductions prepared specially for this work from photographs in my possession. Acknowledgments are due to Messrs. H. W. Buemming, H. D. Bultman, and A. E. Weidinger for valued assistance in preparing original drawings; and to Professor W. R. Ware, to Professor W. H. Thomson, M.D., and to the Editor of the Series for much helpful criticism and suggestion.

It is hoped that the lists of monuments appended to the history of each period down to the present century may prove useful for reference, both to the student and the general reader, as a supplement to the body of the text.

A. D. F. Hamlin.

Columbia College, New York, January 20, 1896.



A History of Freedom of Thought

by J.B. Bury

EXCERPT:
IT is a common saying that thought is free. A man can never be hindered from thinking whatever he chooses so long as he conceals what he thinks. The working of his mind is limited only by the bounds of his experience and the power of his imagination. But this natural liberty of private thinking is of little value. It is unsatisfactory and even painful to the thinker himself, if he is not permitted to communicate his thoughts to others, and it is obviously of no value to his neighbours. Moreover it is extremely difficult to hide thoughts that have any power over the mind. If a man’s thinking leads him to call in question ideas and customs which regulate the behaviour of those about him, to reject beliefs which they hold, to see better ways of life than those they follow, it is almost impossible for him, if he is convinced of the truth of his own reasoning, not to betray by silence, chance words, or general attitude that he is different from them and does not share their opinions. Some have preferred, like Socrates, some would prefer to-day, to face death rather than conceal their thoughts. Thus freedom of thought, in any valuable sense, includes freedom of speech.

At present, in the most civilized countries, freedom of speech is taken as a matter of course and seems a perfectly simple thing. We are so accustomed to it that we look on it as a natural right. But this right has been acquired only in quite recent times, and the way to its attainment has lain through lakes of blood. It has taken centuries to persuade the most enlightened peoples that liberty to publish one’s opinions and to discuss all questions is a good and not a bad thing. Human societies (there are some brilliant exceptions) have been generally opposed to freedom of thought, or, in other words, to new ideas, and it is easy to see why.

The average brain is naturally lazy and tends to take the line of least resistance. The mental world of the ordinary man consists of beliefs which he has accepted without questioning and to which he is firmly attached; he is instinctively hostile to anything which would upset the established order of this familiar world. A new idea, inconsistent with some of the beliefs which he holds, means the necessity of rearranging his mind; and this process is laborious, requiring a painful expenditure of brain-energy. To him and his fellows, who form the vast majority, new ideas, and opinions which cast doubt on established beliefs and institutions, seem evil because they are disagreeable.



World War 2: World War II in 50 Events: From the Very Beginning to the Fall of the Axis Powers (War Books, World War 2 Books, War History) (History in 50 Events Series Book 4)

by James Weber

Do you want to learn how the bloodiest military conflict of all time began, was fought and ultimately won by the Allies

Read about the 50 most important events of World War II, from the very beginning to the fall of the Axis Powers.

This book is perfect for history lovers. Author James Weber did the research and compiled this huge list of events and battles that changed the course of history forever.

Some of them include:

– The Japanese Invasion of Manchuria (September 18, 1931)

– The Signing of the Non-Aggression Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union (August 23, 1939)

– The Battle of Britain (Summer 1940)

– Pearl Harbor (December 7, 1941)

– The Destruction of Cologne during the Thousand Bomber Raid (May 30, 1942)

– The Battles of Midway (June 1942)

– The German Surrender at Stalingrad (February 2, 1943)

– Drop of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)

and many many more

The book takes you through the most important events of WWII from before the beginning of the war in 1939 until its end in 1945. It contains all the major battles and fights. You will find pictures and explanations to every event, making this the perfect resource for students and anyone wanting to broaden their knowledge in history.

Download your copy now!

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Amiens Before and During the War

by Michelin

EXCERPT:
In the days of the Gauls, Amiens, then known as Samarobriva, or “Bridge over the Somme,” was the capital of the Ambiani, a tribe of Belgian origin. Later it passed under Roman domination, and in the fifth century under that of the Franks. Christianity was first preached there at the beginning of the fourth century, by St. Firmin, first bishop and martyr of Amiens. After the death of Charlemagne, the town became the property of the counts and bishops. The latter were unable to defend it against the Normans, who ravaged it on several occasions. In 1185, it was annexed to the royal dominions, under Philippe Auguste. On account of its position, between Paris and the sea, Amiens acquired great importance at that time, and became the store-house for all the goods sent down the river Somme for distribution over the whole of northern France. The manufacture of cloth and linen, and the preparation of “woad” (vegetable dye-stuff used on a very large scale in the Middle Ages) caused Amiens to become as rich and flourishing as the Flemish towns.



Destiny of a Stranger.

by Ruth Benjamin

â??He had not been in this part of the attic before. Probably no one had for many years.

Next to him was a battered cabin trunk, the kind which was used on the old Union Castle Shipping Lines. The box had a lock of it but in maneuvering it a little he found it suddenly releasing itself in his hand.

He gasped as he saw some of the contents of the trunk. What were these things? Where did they come from?

He picked up a tiny book which was encased in a silver cover and opened it curiously. This was not German or French; in fact the letters were not the same, not like any letters he had seen. He picked up a small silver cup with a silver saucer to match. It, too, had there strange letters around it.’

Hans Frederich learns about his ancestry and has to make a decision. Jenny Reynolds, a convert, while on the March of the Living, learns dark secrets about hers.

This book is both deeply moving and exciting as these young people, both lecturers in history, grapple with sinister things which keep arising from the past



The Eastern Roman Empire

by J.B. Bury

Chios Classics brings literature’s greatest works back to life for new generations. All our books contain a linked table of contents.

The Eastern Roman Empire is an authoritative history of the empire from 717 to 1453 A.D., and is Volume 4 of the Cambridge Medieval History series.



Four American Indians

by F. M. Perry

EXCERPT:
Philip, ruler of the Wampanoags, was the only Indian in our country to whom the English colonists gave the title of king. Why no other Indian ever received this title I cannot tell, neither is it known how it happened to be given to Philip.

The Wampanoags were a tribe of Indians whose homes were in what is now southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island east of Narragansett Bay. A few of them, also, lived on the large islands farther south, Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard.

Three centuries ago Massasoit, Philip’s father, was the grand sachem, or ruler, of the Wampanoags. His people did not form one united tribe. They had no states, cities, and villages, with governors, mayors, and aldermen, as we have. Nor did they live in close relations with one another and vote for common officers.

On the other hand, they lived in very small villages. A few families pitched their wigwams together and lived in much the same way as people do now when they camp out in the summer.

Generally, among the Wampanoags, only one family lived in a wigwam. The fathers, or heads of the families in the different wigwams, came together occasionally and consulted about such matters as seemed important to them.

Every one present at the meeting had a right to express his opinion on the question under consideration, and as often as he wished. All spoke calmly, without eloquence, and without set speeches. They talked upon any subject they pleased, as long as they pleased, and when they pleased.

The most prominent person in a village was called the sagamore. His advice and opinion were generally followed, and he governed the people in a very slight manner.



Germany and the Western Empire

by J.B. Bury

Chios Classics brings literature’s greatest works back to life for new generations. All our books contain a linked table of contents.

Germany and the Western Empire is Volume 3 of the Cambridge Medieval History series.



A Great Day With Aunt Kelly: History of Virginia

by Janet Staples

Reading level is K-3 Students learn about Virginia and some interesting facts.

Geography: Student will identify states by shapes and locations on a map.

History: Student will learn that states have their own resources.

History: Student will identify state symbols.

History: Student will learn historical facts about Virginia.

History: Student will learn about the thirteen colonies.

History: Student will learn about the Revolutionary and the Civil War.

History: Student will learn where the President lives.

Reading: Student will describe people, places, and things.

Reading: Student will be able to retell the story.

Reading: Student will increase their vocabulary.

Reading: Student will identify pictures as clues to help identify words.

Reading: Student will use phonetics.

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War: The Adequacy of Its Image

by Clinton R. LeFort

In the opening scenes of the Director John Ford’s film December 7th the opening scene of the movie is a sunken war ship followed by a crashed fighter plane, which has been bombed in half. (B. Schulberg 0:00:40) Then a letter is shown from the War Department-Washington D.C., signed by the “Secretary of War.” The letter reads:

“The War Department will be very glad to obatin a motion picture which will present factually the conditions existing in Hawaii prior to Demcember 7th, the story of the Japaneese attach there on december 7th, and the present conditions in Hawaii as they pertain to preparations for future action”â?¦â?¦.. Henry L. Stimson , Secretary of War” ( B. Schulberg 0h:00m:38sec).

The basic meaning of this letter is that it intends to show that the United States Secretary of War wanted to portray an actual account of the conditions of Hawaii before, during and after the attack on December 7th 1941.



Witnesses to Glory

by Karl Dallas

Gunbutts smashing through the door, hobnails crashing down the street at dead of night. Distant gunfire. Screams close by, as people are dragged from their homes at break of dawn and flung into the backs of four-wheel-drives. We hide from the death squads.
We dare not show a light, for fear they see it and capture us, to kill us as they killed him, that Friday morning. Only yesterday, but it seems like an age, of terror and torture. If they stop and question us, we must deny everything, even him. It is like a sour taste in the mouth, like vomit, this denial, but we are only human. We want to live.
We tell ourselves our denial is to survive so we may pass on his message, but we lie when we say it. For we tell no one, not even our friends, since all will betray us, to save themselves. As we would ourselves. No one can judge another, when the beatings and the electric shocks start.
Yet the need to pass it on is so great, we must confess it to each other.
So we sit in these cellars, in the dark, whispering to the night, holding off the dark, as the troop carriers roar down the streets above us, the gunbutts smash the doors, the death rattle of sub-machine guns fills the night as our comrades die. The ones who are not taken alive are the lucky ones.
What we whisper to each other are our memories, a liturgy of hope. How it was, how it will always be in our recollection, how it is to come. Each one of us has a part of it, and we share it with each other, as he taught us to share his blood and his body, cowering here in the dark, and it is like a glimmer of a candle in the hurricane, flickering, faltering, but rising up again.
Our stories do not all agree. One will say: This is how it happened; but others will deny it. Out of such disagreements grows consensus. Perhaps it is an outside force at work, the counsellor he promised would come after he left us, guiding us through these frantic, frightened whispers, in the long silences between the horrors of the street above.
Our numbers are not constant. They are picking us up, all the time, and of course death is still part of the world in these last times. None of us is immune. So these whispered memories become all we have of those who are gone, those who disappear, those who just stop sheltering with us.
Nothing can be written down. It is too dangerous. But though we are mostly literate, we have been using our memories all our lives. It was part of our daily worship before the clamp-down. There are scrolls in the temple but we do not need them to quote you chapter and verse. We can hear them in our ears, recalling them as they were read at each weekly Sabbath, and so we can also hear the words he spoke, and what others have told us of what he said, replaying it to each other, so they become not the memories of one, but the memory of all.
It was good, sharing our recollections in the darkness, and as the squads returned to barracks, and the heat lifted, we brought them up into the light, and continued sharing them. We did not need to write them down to keep them bright and shining, because we could not know when the terror might return, and anyway the written word can become like a stone, weighing down our recollections into verbal constructs that are dead fossils, not a growing testimony.
One day, of course, perhaps a lifetime hence, they will be written, so that the whole world may read, in all the million tongues of humankind. Something will be lost then, as well as gained.
Until then, we tell the old stories, pray the old prayers, yes and sing new songs growing out of the old words, witnesses to what has been, what is, and what is to be.
The story of a child who came to lead us, and is with us still.



Pearl Harbor – Eyewitness Accounts

by J.W. Pitchford

It all happened so quickly. At 7:55 AM on Sunday 7 December 1941, the first of two waves of Japanese aircraft began their deadly attack on the US Pacific Fleet, moored at Pearl Harbor on the Pacific island of Oahu. Within two hours, five battleships had been sunk, another 16 damaged, and 188 aircraft destroyed. Pearl Harbor was the spark that set off the entire nation and led to war on a massive scale.

Prepare to be shocked, moved, and amazed by these harrowing tales of survival and triumph on that very day. Discover the stories as told by those who lived it in stunning detail. From nurses to pilots, you’ll hear stories about Pearl Harbor from every side possible.



American Founders (Illustrated)

by John Lord

Dr. Lord’s volume on “American Statesmen” was written some years after the issue of his volume on “Warriors and Statesmen,” which was Volume IV of his original series of five volumes. The wide popular acceptance of the five volumes encouraged him to extend the series by including, and rewriting for the purpose, others of his great range of lectures. The volume called “Warriors and Statesmen” (now otherwise distributed) included a number of lectures which in this new edition have been arranged in more natural grouping. Among them were the lectures on Hamilton and Webster. It has been deemed wise to bring these into closer relation with their contemporaries, and thus Hamilton is now placed in this volume, among the other “American Founders,” and Webster in the volume on “American Leaders.”

Of the “Founders” there is one of whom Dr. Lord did not treat, yet whose servicesâ??especially in the popular confirmation of the Constitution by the various States, and notably in its fundamental interpretation by the United States Supreme Courtâ??rank as vitally important. John Marshall, as Chief Justice of that Court, raised it to a lofty height in the judicial world, and by his various decisions established the Constitution in its unique position as applicable to all manner of political and commercial questionsâ??the world’s marvel of combined firmness and elasticity. To quote Winthrop, as cited by Dr. Lord, it is “like one of those rocking-stones reared by the Druids, which the finger of a child may vibrate to its centre, yet which the might of an army cannot move from its place.”

So important was Marshall’s work, and so potent is the influence of the United States Supreme Court, that no apology is needed for introducing into this volume on our “Founders” a chapter dealing with that great theme by Professor John Bassett Moore, recently Assistant Secretary of State; later, Counsel for the Peace Commission at Paris; and now occupying the chair of International Law and Diplomacy in the School of Political Science, Columbia University, New York City.

NEW YORK, September, 1902.



American Leaders (Illustrated)

by John Lord

The remarks made in the preface to the volume on “American Founders” are applicable also to this volume on “American Leaders.” The lecture on Daniel Webster has been taken from its original position in “Warriors and Statesmen” (a volume the lectures of which are now distributed for the new edition in more appropriate groupings), and finds its natural neighborhood in this volume with the paper on Clay and Calhoun.

Since the intense era of the Civil War has passed away, and Northerners and Southerners are becoming more and more able to take dispassionate views of the controversies of that time, finding honorable reasons for the differences of opinion and of resultant conduct on both sides, it has been thought well to include among “American Leaders” a man who stands before all Americans as the chief embodiment of the “cause” for which so many gallant soldiers diedâ??Robert E. Lee. His personal character was so lofty, his military genius so eminent, that North and South alike looked up to him while living and mourned him dead. His career is depicted by one who has given it careful study, and who, himself a wounded veteran officer of the Union army, and regarding the Southern cause as one well “lost,” as to its chief aims of Secession and protection to Slavery, in the interest of civilization and of the South itself, yet holds a high appreciation of the noble man who is its chief representative. The paper on “Robert E. Lee: The Southern Confederacy,” is from the pen of Dr. E. Benjamin Andrews, Chancellor of the University of Nebraska.

NEW YORK, September, 1902.



Ancient America

by John Baldwin

It is generally known, I suppose, that original manuscript records of Norse voyages to this continent have been carefully preserved in Iceland, and that they were first published at Copenhagen in 1837, with a Danish and a Latin translation. These narratives are plain, straightforward, business-like accounts of actual voyages made by the Northmen, in the tenth and eleventh centuries, to Greenland, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and the coast of Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Within the whole range of the literature of discovery and adventure no volumes can be found which have more abundant internal evidence of authenticity. It always happens, when something important is unexpectedly added to our knowledge of the past, that somebody will blindly disbelieve. Dugald Stewart could see nothing but “frauds of arch-forgers” in what was added to our knowledge of ancient India when the Sanskrit language and literature were discovered. In the same way, here and there a doubter has hesitated to accept the fact communicated by these Norse records; but, with the evidence before us, we may as reasonably doubt any unquestioned fact of history which depends on similar testimony.

Any account of these voyages should be prefaced by some notice of Iceland. Look on a map at the position of Iceland, and you will see at once that it should not be classed as a European island. It belongs to North America. It was, in fact, unknown to modern Europe until the year 861 A.D., when it was discovered by Nadodd, a Norse rover. There is some reason to believe the Irish had previously sailed to this island, but no settlement was established in it previous to the year 875, when it was occupied by a colony of Norwegians under a chief named Ingolf. Owing to civil troubles in Norway, he was soon followed by many of the most intelligent, wealthy, and honorable of his countrymen.



Ancient India

by E.J. Rapson

Chios Classics brings literature’s greatest works back to life for new generations. All our books contain a linked table of contents.

Ancient India is an exceptional overview of early Indian history and Volume 1 from the Cambridge History of India series.



Commentary Upon the Maya-Tzental Perez Codex

by William Gates

In presenting this Commentary on the Codex Perez to students of American Archaeology, the Peabody Museum adds another paper to its series relating to the study of the hieroglyphic writing of the ancient peoples of Mexico and Central America.

The Museum is fortunate in adding to its collaborators Mr. William E. Gates, of Point Loma, California, who for more than ten years has been an earnest student of American hieroglyphs. From his lifelong studies in linguistics in connection with his research in “the motifs of civilizations and cultures,” he comes well-equipped to take up the difficult and all-absorbing study of American hieroglyphic writing. Mr. Gates has materially advanced this study by his reproduction of the glyphs in type. These type-forms he has used first in his reproduction of the Codex Perez, and now in this Commentary they are used for the first time in printing. The method used in the construction of this font of type is explained by Mr. Gates in the following pages. This important aid to the study will be highly appreciated by all students of American hieroglyphs, as it will greatly facilitate the presentation of the results of future research.

It will be seen that this Commentary is more in the line of suggestion to be expanded after further studies, than in the way of conclusions.

At the close of the paper the author presents the general deductions he has drawn from his comparative study of languages and cultures. His concluding paragraph forcibly presents the hope that the understanding of the Maya glyphs will furnish new and important data in the life history of man.

F. W. Putnam

Peabody Museum

October, 1910



Edge Hill: The Battle and Battlefield

by Edwin Walford

For the present edition the available material of the last eighteen years has been consulted, but the plans of battle are similar to two of those of my book of 1886. They were then the first series of diagrammatic representations of the fight published, but in no case has this been acknowledged in the many plans of like kind subsequently published. Some new facts and inferences the author hopes may increase the value of the account.

The letters of Captain Nathaniel Fiennes and Captain Kightley, now added, may serve to make the tale a more living one. They are reproduced, by the kind courtesy of the authorities of the Radcliffe Library, Oxford, and the Birmingham Reference Library.

New pages of Notes on Banbury, and an extended bibliography are also given.



From Paris to Pekin over Siberian Snows

by Victor Meignan

Embarrassed readers, who delight in books of travel, whether for the recreation or the useful information they afford, are not relieved of their difficulty when the title of the work, instead of indicating the nature of the subject, only presents an enigma for them to solve. How, for instance, is the reader to gauge the nature of the contents of “Voyage en Zigzag?” It might mean the itinerary of some crooked course among the Alps, or, perhaps, the log-book of a yacht chopping about the Channel, or the record of anything but a straightforward journey. Again, “By Land and Sea” might simply be the diary of a holiday trip from London to Paris, or a réchauffé of impressions of a “globe-trotter,” who went to see what everybody talked about that he also might talk about what he had seen. Then there are a host of others, such as “Travels West,” “The Land of the North Wind”â??which one has to discover vaguely by ascertaining first where it does not blow,â??”Loin de Paris,” “Dans les Nuages,” “On Blue Water;” all of which might be strictly applicable to the metropolitan area if the water were only just a little bluer. But “Voyage Autour de ma Femme” is still less intelligible. Is it a book of travel at all, or only a romance, or a comédie-vaudeville? It may not be a fantaisie like “Voyage Autour de ma Chambre,” nor even the record of a journey necessarily performed within four walls, forâ??though I have not looked at the bookâ??it may be the narrative of an unsentimental journey, in which the tourist had taken a holiday trip all around picturesque Europe and his wife, leaving her at home; or it may be a sentimental journey as touching as Sterne’sâ??a kind of circular tour en petit, circumscribed by the ordinary length of the apron-string; in which event, a very subjective turn of the impressions de voyage would be evident; and consequently would not suit readers who decidedly prefer to regard what is presented from the objective side.

The reader will naturally discover from the title of this book the traveller’s course, but he will at the same time, no doubt, desire to know something of the character of the book.



Heroes and Hunters of the West

by Anonymous

To the lovers of thrilling adventure, the title of this work would alone be its strongest recommendation. The exploits of the Heroes of the West, need but a simple narration to give them an irresistible charm. They display the bolder and rougher features of human nature in their noblest light, softened and directed by virtues that have appeared in the really heroic deeds of every age, and form pages in the history of this country destined to be read and admired when much that is now deemed more important is forgotten.

It is true, that, with the lights of this age, we regard many of the deeds of our western pioneer as aggressive, barbarous, and unworthy of civilized men. But there is no truly noble heart that will not swell in admiration of the devotion and disinterestedness of Benjamin Logan, the self-reliant energy of Boone and Whetzel, and the steady firmness and consummate military skill of George Rogers Clarke. The people of this country need records of the lives of such men, and we have attempted to present these in an attractive form.



A Study of Pueblo Pottery as Illustrative of Zuñi Culture Growth

by Frank Hamilton Cushing

EXCERPT:

It is conceded that the peculiarities of a culture-status are due chiefly to the necessities encountered during its development. In this sense the Pueblo phase of life was, like the Egyptian, the product of a desert environment. Given that a tribe or stock of people is weak, they will be encroached upon by neighboring stronger tribes, and driven to new surroundings if not subdued. Such we may believe was the influence which led the ancestors of the Pueblo tribes to adopt an almost waterless area for their habitat.

It is apparent at least that they entered the country wherein their remains occur while comparatively a rude people, and worked out there almost wholly their incipient civilization. Of this there is important linguistic evidence.

A Navajo hogan, or hut, is a beehive-shaped or conical structure (see Fig. 490) of sticks and turf or earth, sometimes even of stones chinked with mud. Yet its modern Zuñi name is hám’ pon ne, from ha we, dried brush, sprigs or leaves; and pó an ne, covering, shelter or roof (po a to place over and ne the nominal suffix); which, interpreted, signifies a “brush or leaf shelter.” This leads to the inference that the temporary shelter with which the Zuñis were acquainted when they formulated the name here given, presumably in their earliest condition, was in shape like the Navajo hogan, but in material, of brush or like perishable substance.

The archaic name for a building or walled inclosure is hé sho ta, a contraction of the now obsolete term, hé sho ta pon ne, from hé sho, gum, or resin-like; shó tai e, leaned or placed together convergingly; and tá po an ne, a roof of wood or a roof supported by wood.

The meaning of all this would be obscure did not the oldest remains of the Pueblos occur in the almost inaccessible lava wastes bordering the southwestern deserts and intersecting them and were not the houses of these ruins built on the plan of shelters, round (see Figs. 491, 492, 493), rather than rectangular. Furthermore, not only does the lava-rock of which their walls have been rudely constructed resemble natural asphaltum (hé sho) and possess a cleavage exactly like that of piñon-gum and allied substances (also hé sho), but some forms of lava are actually known as á he sho or gum-rock. From these considerations inferring that the name hé sho ta pon ne derivatively signifies something like “a gum-rock shelter with roof supports of wood,” we may also infer that the Pueblos on their coming into the desert regions dispossessed earlier inhabitants or that they chose the lava-wastes the better to secure themselves from invasion; moreover that the oldest form of building known to them was therefore an inclosure of lava-stones, whence the application of the contraction hé sho ta, and its restriction to mean a walled inclosure.



Artillery Through the Ages (Illustrated)

by Albert Manucy

EXCERPT:
To compare a Roman catapult with a modern trench mortar seems absurd. Yet the only basic difference is the kind of energy that sends the projectile on its way.

In the dawn of history, war engines were performing the function of artillery (which may be loosely defined as a means of hurling missiles too heavy to be thrown by hand), and with these crude weapons the basic principles of artillery were laid down. The Scriptures record the use of ingenious machines on the walls of Jerusalem eight centuries B.C.â??machines that were probably predecessors of the catapult and ballista, getting power from twisted ropes made of hair, hide or sinew. The ballista had horizontal arms like a bow. The arms were set in rope; a cord, fastened to the arms like a bowstring, fired arrows, darts, and stones. Like a modern field gun, the ballista shot low and directly toward the enemy.

The catapult was the howitzer, or mortar, of its day and could throw a hundred-pound stone 600 yards in a high arc to strike the enemy behind his wall or batter down his defenses. “In the middle of the ropes a wooden arm rises like a chariot pole,” wrote the historian Marcellinus. “At the top of the arm hangs a sling. When battle is commenced, a round stone is set in the sling. Four soldiers on each side of the engine wind the arm down until it is almost level with the ground. When the arm is set free, it springs up and hurls the stone forth from its sling.” In early times the weapon was called a “scorpion,” for like this dreaded insect it bore its “sting” erect.



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