Free philosophy Kindle books for 21 Dec 15

Crito

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.



Eryxias

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

Most classical scholars believe that Eryxias was written a generation or two after Plato.  Indeed, even the ancients doubted that Plato was the author. Even so, this dialogue is an interesting discussion on the concept of “wealth”, both in the concrete and the abstract.



Alcibiades I

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

There is controversy among scholars as to the authorship of the dialogues entitled Alcibiades I and Alcibiades II.  However, most accept that Alcibiades I  belongs in the Plato canon.  Alcibiades is described as a very young man, supremely self-confident and very ambitious. Socrates questions whether the young man has the knowledge or the political wherewithal to persuade the Athenian populace on matters of war and peace, justice and injustice, and other topics.



Sophist

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

In The Republic, Plato uses Socrates once again to discuss the concepts of justice and how it applies to administering the city-state (polis), from the way labor is assigned to the way officials rule. In the process, the Socratic dialogue discusses the ideal form of government, as well as metaphysical concepts like the soul, while reaching a very famous conclusion about “philosopher kings”.



Philebus

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.



Symposium

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

Those interested in the historicity of Socrates have combed The Symposium for clues as to its authenticity, and whether the dinner actually took place. However, Plato makes mention of the division of Arcadia after the destruction of Mantinea, which occurred in 384 B.C., and Socrates had already been poisoned over a decade earlier. Others have noted the Symposium is similar in style and topic with Plato’s Phaedrus. They are the only two dialogues of Plato’s that deal with love as a topic.



Theages

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.



Timaeus

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

Timaeus is one of Plato’s dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world and human beings.



Protagoras

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.



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