Free history Kindle books for 03 Aug 16

The Most Important Capitals of Ancient Egypt: The History of Memphis, Thebes, and Alexandria

by Charles River Editors

*Includes pictures

*Includes archaeological facts about the sites and descriptions of them

*Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading

*Includes a table of contents

Africa may have given rise to the first humans, and Egypt probably gave rise to the first great civilizations, which continue to fascinate modern societies across the globe nearly 5,000 years later. From the Library and Lighthouse of Alexandria to the Great Pyramid at Giza, the Ancient Egyptians produced several wonders of the world, revolutionized architecture and construction, created some of the world’s first systems of mathematics and medicine, and established language and art that spread across the known world. With world-famous leaders like King Tut and Cleopatra, it’s no wonder that today’s world has so many Egyptologists.

Thus, it is somewhat ironic that over time, people have managed to retain hardly any information about Memphis, the Ancient Egyptian capital in which the pharaohs responsible for the Great Pyramids resided and ruled. At some point, even the precise location of Memphis came to be forgotten, and the city was believed lost to the annals of time. Archaeological David Jefferys, not to be dissuaded, has continued to insist that Memphis is not a “lost” city but simply a city that has been temporarily misplaced. To this day, teams of archaeologists continue to sift through the Egyptian sands in the hopes that they will at last unearth the walls of the elusive city. In the meantime, an examination of the scant historical record read in close conjunction with the archaeological record does allow a glimpse into what one of Egypt’s most important cities was like.

In just a few lines of his renowned Iliad, Homer immortalized in writing what the Thebans had immortalized in stone nearly a millennium before – Thebes “of the Hundred Gates” was home to some of the most splendid relics of the religion, history, and art of ancient Egypt and indeed of all the ancient world. As Thebes grew from an unimportant settlement to the richest city in the ancient world, unparalleled in its beauty and splendor, nearly all of its leaders left his or her mark in the form of one or more legendary monuments at the great temple complex to Amun-Ra at Karnak, the temple to Amun-Ra at Luxor, and the mortuary temples and tombs of the Valley of the Kings. As Thebes underwent the dramatic changes that came with its 3,000 years of political shifts, religious reforms, and ritual changes – not to mention its sometimes abrupt changes in fortune – its monuments grew and changed with it. The study of the fascinating archaeology of these sprawling structures thus provides an excellent point of entry for understanding nearly all aspects of Theban history and culture.

The land and people of Egypt so impressed the Greeks that when Alexander the Great conquered the Nile Valley in the 4th century BCE, he decided that he would build a new city on its soil and name it Alexandria. After Alexander, the city of Alexandria grew and became the most important city in the world for centuries as it watched and played a role in the rise and fall of numerous dynasties. The city also became home to one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World – the Lighthouse of Alexandria – and a center of culture and learning, which was exemplified by the Library of Alexandria. Truly, Alexandria was as unique as it was great; it was a Greek city built on Egyptian soil that was later ruled by the Romans and then became an important center of early Christian culture.

What made Alexandria stand apart from other ancient cities such as Rome and Babylon and how did it become the gift of the Mediterranean? The answer is complicated, but an examination of Alexandria’s history reveals that from the time the city was founded until the Arab conquest, the different dynasties who ruled there took the time and effort to foster and patronize arts, culture, and learning.



Apollo 1 and the Space Shuttle Challenger: The History of NASA’s Two Most Notorious Disasters

by Charles River Editors

*Includes pictures

*Includes accounts of the disasters and government reports about them

*Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading

*Includes a table of contents

The Apollo space program is the most famous and celebrated in American history, but the first successful landing of men on the Moon during Apollo 11 had complicated roots dating back over a decade, and it also involved one of NASA’s most infamous tragedies. Landing on the Moon presented an ideal goal all on its own, but the government’s urgency in designing the Apollo program was actually brought about by the Soviet Union, which spent much of the 1950s leaving the United States in its dust (and rocket fuel). In 1957, at a time when people were concerned about communism and nuclear war, many Americans were dismayed by news that the Soviet Union was successfully launching satellites into orbit.

On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy addressed Congress and asked the nation to “commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth.” Given America’s inability to even put a man in orbit yet, this seemed like an overly ambitious goal, and it isn’t even clear that Kennedy himself believed it possible; after all, he was reluctant to meet NASA Administrator James E. Webb’s initial funding requests.

As Apollo 11’s name suggests, there were actually a number of Apollo missions that came before, many of which included testing the rockets and different orbital and lunar modules in orbit. In fact, it wasn’t until Apollo 8 that a manned vehicle was sent towards the Moon and back, and before that mission, the most famous Apollo mission was Apollo 1, albeit for all the wrong reasons.

There were no delusions regarding the dangers of manned space travel, but they were brought home on January 27, 1967, when all three astronauts were killed by a fire that ignited in the cabin during a launch rehearsal. To this day, there is still debate over what ignited the fire, but the disaster made clear that the modules being used by NASA had a series of fatal flaws.

In the decades after the Apollo program, American space shuttles flew over 130 missions and successfully completed over 98% of them, but unfortunately, the two most famous missions were the ones that ended tragically aboard the Challenger and Columbia.

The Space Shuttle Challenger was the most heavily used space shuttle in the three years it was operational, carrying the first minority astronaut and woman astronaut into space. Challenger was also the first space shuttle to complete a landing at night.

On the morning of January 28, 1986, the Space Shuttle Challenger launched for the 10th time, beginning mission STS-51-L. Space shuttles had already successfully completed 24 missions, and no American spacecraft had ever failed to reach orbit during an official mission. Ascent seemed to be going normally during the first minute, but about 75 seconds into the ascent, a plastic O-ring used to seal a joint in one of the solid rocket boosters failed, causing a breach of hot gas. That gas spread to the other rocket booster and the external fuel tank, causing an explosion. When the spectators saw the explosion, many of them started cheering, unaware of what was really happening. But Mission Control quickly announced that there had been some sort of problem, and the crowd became confused and then panicky as the space shuttle, fuel tank and rocket boosters all broke apart and flew in opposite directions. Some cameras fixed on the falling debris as it fell to the ocean. The entire crew was killed in the explosion, and investigations concluded that they may have survived until crashing into the ocean. After the Challenger disaster, the space shuttles were grounded for about two years, and a commission issued findings that would be used in an effort to prevent similar tragedies.



Brexit: Victory and Hope: The Vote to Leave and Securing our Future

by Andrew Mather

What is it going to take to turn an extraordinary result into an extraordinary or at least decent future? The answer lies not in the immediate actions of politicians but in the character of the Britons who had the courage to vote for Leave against all the authorities telling them to do otherwise. The measure of how shocking that has been can be seen in the vitriol directed against Leave voters, and that is where the motif of Two Fingers comes from.

Two fingers is an ancient sign, a taunt to our then European (French) enemies who had vowed to cut off the bow fingers of the British archers. It showed, after the battle was won against all expectations, that their fingers were intact. Reversed, it was used by Churchill as a symbol of victory, long before that was assured. It is a fitting symbol then in our current circumstances, when we have gone against all authority, not only the EU authority that was the subject of the referendum, and now find ourselves in a situation where a successful outcome is far from assured.

We have shown that bloody-mindedness and common sense are not dead. Now we need to recognise that they are our strengths, not our weaknesses, and we should take confidence from the outrage of those who seek to deride us. They’re clearly not happy that we decided what’s best for ourselves. What should that tell us about the kind of people who think they have the right, indeed duty, to rule our lives?

Maybe it’s time to take back our future.



The German Chancellor and the Outbreak of War

by J.W. Headlam

The German Chancellor and the Outbreak of War is an overview of the events in Germany just preceding the start of World War I.



World War 2 History: True Stories Of The Wehrmacht War Crimes And Atrocities (Waffen, WW2, World War 2, German War, Irma Grese, Auschwitz, World War 2 History Book 1)

by Cyrus J. Zachary

The True Stories of the Shocking Wehrmacht War Crimes and Atrocities…

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The Second World War was, no doubt, one of the worst experiences mankind has ever faced. From torture to rape to murder, crimes against innocents were innumerous – Adolf Hitler, a diminutive man with the oratorical skills of a genius took advantage of a sensitive situation in the aftermath of Germany’s defeat in the First World War and amassed enough power to bring the entire European continent to its knees.

In the forefront of Hitler’s troops were the Wehrmacht, which had some of the most elite, most powerful and most brutal soldiers in the world.

What’s sad is that at the end of the Second World War, when the Nuremberg Trials took place and most of the WW2 criminals were tried and then punished, the Wehrmacht was declared as not a criminal organization. This was because of a legal technicality and loophole that left them as simply part of the German Armed Forces.

Just because they were ruled as â??not a criminal organization’, it doesn’t mean that they weren’t criminals – there are even some who would deny that these men were war criminals, but that lies on par with those who would deny the existence of the Holocaust itself, given that there is ample evidence to prove the evil-doing of the Wehrmacht soldiers…..

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Byron’s Narrative of the Loss of the Wager

by Lord Byron

Byron’s Narrative of the Loss of the Wager is an account of the wreck and mutiny of the HMS Wager. The Wager was a British ship which wrecked in 1741 off the coast of Chile. A mutiny ensued and only a handful of the original 300 crew made it back to England.



Women’s Suffrage: A Short History of a Great Movement

by Millicent Fawcett

Women’s Suffrage: A Short History of a Great Movement is a history of the women’s suffrage movement in the U.K.



A Short View of the State of Ireland, Written in 1605

by John Harington

A Short View of the State of Ireland, Written in 1605 is a fascinating collection of letters describing Ireland in the early 17th century.



Pokemon Go: 7 Proven Steps to Pokemon Go Mastery: Pokemon Go: Guide (Android, iOS, Secrets, Secrets, Tips, Hints, Tricks)

by Jeremy Tyson

You play Pokémon Go to be better than everyone else!

Dear Pokémon Trainer,

Welcome to Pokemon Go: 7 Steps to Pokemon Go Mastery. In this book, I will take you, an already advanced player, to an even higher level. This book contains the 7 steps I wish I was taught to become the most successful trainer in your neighborhood. If you follow these 7 steps, you will become the very best!

Some of the subjects talked about in this book are:

  • Locating Pokémon
  • Catching Pokémon
  • Gaining experience
  • Strengthen your Pokémon
  • Winning battles
  • Clothing
  • Battery

With this guide you will master all these topics and all the detailed information they contain. In just 7 steps, you can become the one true Pokémon master of your neighborhood and surpass everyone near you.

Download your copy today and truly become the very best.



Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer

by G. Moxley Sorrel

Gilbert Moxley Sorrel (February 23, 1838 – August 10, 1901) was a staff officer and Brigadier-General in the Provisional Army of the Confederate States.



AN HONORABLE MAN: Facebook of Tyberian

by Joshua Calhoun

This book is about all things good.



Hor

by Peter Preston

The journey of the ancient Egyptian god of the sun through the Underworld at night.



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