Free philosophy Kindle books for 28 Mar 17

Considerations on Representative Government

by John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), a British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. He was an advocate of utilitarianism, the ethical theory of his godfather, Jeremy Bentham, but his conception of it was very different from that of Bentham. His father’s History of India was published in 1818; immediately thereafter, about the age of twelve, Mill began a thorough study of the scholastic logic, at the same time reading Aristotle’s logical treatises in the original language. A contemporary record of his studies from eight to thirteen is published in Bain’s sketch of his life. It suggests that his autobiography rather understates the amount of work done. His works include Essays on Some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844), Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform (1859), Auguste Comte and Positivism (1865), Considerations on Representative Government (1861), The Contest in America (1862), and Utilitarianism (1863).



Les Noces de l’Agneau (French Edition)

by Fabrice Ezelin

Le sujet traité jette une lumière sur la Gnose qui anime non seulement l’Apocalypse de Jean, mais également celle qui remonte à l’origine des Védas, en passant par le Tao de la métaphysique chinoise. Le nouvel univers annoncé par les prophéties mayas, notamment en ce qui a trait à la fin de leur calendrier sacré, fait référence à la venue d’un cinquième soleil, un cinquième état de l’univers dont l’émergence apparaît symboliquement sous les traits du dieu Bolonyocte aux neuf pieds dimensionnels. Alors que le 21 décembre 2012 est maintenant chose du passé, qu’y aurait-il de plus à dire à propos de cette prophétie, dont la correspondance avec le calendrier grégorien ne fait pas l’unanimité entre tous les experts? Derrière les dimensions de la divinité Bolonyocte, il est question de la remontée ou ascension, au niveau de la conscience collective, des autres dimensions cachées que celles que nous appréhendons au quotidien, à savoir l’espace-temps. Ces dimensions sont aussi mieux connues par la tradition hébraïque sous le nom de Sephiroth. Au nombre de 9 + 1, les Sephiroth sont des archétypes organiquement constitutifs de l’Adam Kadmon originel, avant que cet être central, devenu l’univers primitif au terme de sa chute, n’en jongle qu’avec trois. Une chute d’où sont sortis tous les règnes de la Nature. Ã?difiant notre univers physique extérieur, les 3 + 1 dimensions en comprennent une de nature psychosomatique, la fameuse quatrième que d’aucuns appellent aussi, la dimension du Temps. Cette quatrième est aussi inscrite dans la symbolique du Bateleur, la première arcane du Tarot de Marseille : son espace de jeu s’appuie sur une table à 3 pieds. Relégués dans les profondeurs de notre inconscient, les cinq dernières dimensions demeurent des qualités invisibles, par opposition au quantité mesurable des trois de nature spatiale, dites objectives. La tradition gnostique chrétienne évoque le réveil de ces dimensions éclipsées de la manifestation phénoménale comme le retour du Christ. Un retour qui fait référence, en fait, à la réalisation de la dixième Sephirah (le singulier de Sephiroth) identifiée sous le nom de Royaume. Ce royaume n’est nul autre que le Royaume de Dieu à venir, celui évoqué dans le Notre Père de la très célèbre prière chrétienne.



Lesser Hippias

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

There is some controvery among classical scholars as to whether or not the Lesser Hippias is a genuine work of Plato. There are good arguments for either position, based on style and substance. Regardless, in this dialogue, Socrates engages in a spirited discussion of whether it is better to do wrong intentionally or unintentionally, using examples from Homer.  His foil, Hippias, is vain and boastful. He thinks he knows everything and can do everything. But, as in most of the dialogues, the superior dialectics of Socrates wins out.



Eryxias

by Plato

To say Socrates was an influence on Plato would be a vast understatement; historians today still struggle to distinguish Socrates’ philosophical beliefs from Plato’s, because much of Plato’s writings consisted of “Socratic dialogues,” in which the main character, Socrates, discusses the topic of the writing with his followers.  Yet for all of the influence of Socrates’ life on Plato, it was Socrates’ death around 399 B.C. that truly shaped him.  Plato was so embittered by Socrates’ trial in Athens that he completely soured on Athenian democracy, and he began to travel around the Mediterranean, studying topics like mathematics, honing his approach to philosophical thinking, and continuing to refine his philosophical beliefs.
 
About a decade later, Plato returned to Athens and founded his famous Platonic Academy around 387 B.C., which he oversaw for 40 years until his death.  One of Plato’s philosophical beliefs was that writing down teachings was less valuable than passing them down orally, and several of Plato’s writings are responses to previous writings of his, so Plato’s personally held beliefs are hard to discern.  However, Plato educated several subsequent philosophers, chief among them Aristotle, and his writings eventually formed the backbone of Western philosophy.

Most classical scholars believe that Eryxias was written a generation or two after Plato.  Indeed, even the ancients doubted that Plato was the author. Even so, this dialogue is an interesting discussion on the concept of “wealth”, both in the concrete and the abstract.



Projeto Bananas (Portuguese Edition)

by Carlos Vieira

Texto simples, leve e divertido direcionado para crianças e adolescente, e que tem por objetivo transmitir um pouco de conceitos filosóficos e de bem viver.



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