Free religion and spirituality Kindle books for 11 Sep 18

The Social Reality Behind Ancient Religious Texts

by I.M. Kraaijeveld

The Social Reality Behind Ancient Religious Texts
Whether taking into account the social reality of the word â??knowledge’, through the method of pragmatics, attributes something to its meaning that lexical semantics alone cannot?
– The Book of Daniel
– The Apocalypse of Adam
– The Book of Proverbs
– The book of Isaiah
Introduction, Pragmatics, Context, Meaning

Religious texts are essential for understanding the social reality of communities in ancient times. Textual sources and archeological excavations are the only means in providing access to these ancient religious communities. However a problem occurs when one wishes to understand the social reality of a community through a textual study. In order to interpret an ancient text in an accurate manner one needs to understand the corresponding social reality. It too is thus the object of one’s research. But it is difficult to grasp the social reality through a text, because texts do not clearly describe these aspects. The author’s motive to write a particular text is often not to describe their social reality, but lies in other reasons such as the promotion of his religious worldview. In addition and unfortunately, excavations cannot complement this lack of knowledge sufficiently. Thus, we find ourselves in a difficult position. In order to understand a text in an accurate and satisfying way, we need to take into account its social reality. But the only way to come to understand the social reality at the time of the texts birth is through the text. To meet this problem, it is important to search for methods that bring more clarity to both text and social reality. According to Peter Cotterell and James Turner the social reality in which a text was written can be found inside a text.1 To reveal the social reality behind a text, for purposes of understanding a text as good as possible, the method of pragmatics is first choice. I am of the opinion that pragmatics can be of assistance in both the search for the social reality behind the text as when explaining the text itself it concerned. This because pragmatics is designed to reveal the context of a text and thus reveals both text and social reality.

I am not the only one who has come to think of the translation of religious texts in this way. Nowadays, it is common to think an accurate interpretation of a text depends on both lexical semantics and pragmatics of a text. In these theories, lexical semantics concentrates on the meaning of the written word based on grammar and vocabulary. Pragmatics, as a second pillar, focuses on the context of the text by discussing questions like: â??What did the author mean by writing X?’. The lexical semantics of a word, sentence or complete text are relatively easy to comprehend compared to the pragmatics of a text. Sufficient knowledge of the language (grammar and vocabulary) will result in a textual understanding of the text. However, in order to understand the context of a text, one needs to understand the social

1 I will return to the theory of pragmatics by Cotterell and Turner in chapter 2.

reality behind the text. This social reality relates to the purpose of writing, the social environment of the author, how the text developed to its final stage, how it was perceived by the audience, the plot of the text, its characters, its situation, its circumstances, the context and so forth. If we do not want to depend solely on archeological excavation in order to reach the places and centuries in which a text was written and in which the author(s) lived, we need turn to pragmatics.

A Wish and A Prayer

by Marisa Meyer

A collection of sweet Christian romance tales…Nicola had given up all hope to find true love. After a disastrous relationship, she resigned herself to the fact that she was not meant to find love, but when her best friend’s wedding draws near she has to come to terms with the fact that she would have to face the man who broke her heart, and smile and wave. Her friend Angelique makes her toss coins into the Trivia fountain and she does, only to please her friend, but little did she know what would unfold.

Kyle, like Nicola, had given up on love. In his opinion, some people find love and others are destined to go without it. He sees her from across the fountain, and he too makes a wish more to humour himself, but when an old man appears next to him and tells him that he has a week to make his dreams come true, strange things start to happen.

When legend and reality meets face to face, who knows what may happen nextâ?¦

Self Healing

by Kátia Arlindo

Our body works like a powerful computer processing all the possible information to help us make the best decisions and warn us of the dangers. As we ignore the information and guidance of our body, and repeatedly take wrong decisions, we lose our power, our health and find misery and disease.

This technique will allow you to communicate with the Inner wisdom and through statements, foods, herbs, sound and exercises reach happiness and health.



Gospel and Inspirational book teaching on the power of the word of God.

An Amish Blessing In Disguise

by Victoria Morris

An Amish anthology featuring “An Amish Blessing In Disguise”…Mary is an Amish young woman who has her entire life planned out: she was going to marry Mark and they were going to be happily ever after. But then life throws her a curve ball, Mark decides to marry someone else. Mary is more than just heart broken, she feels as if she should give up on romance altogether.
It is only a short time, however, when she starts to receive attention from Luke, a new arrival in the community. He’s handsome and polite…but will he be just another man like Mark?

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