Free history Kindle books for 16 Jan 19

Ceremonial Drinking in the Viking Age (Omega Viking Series Book 1)

by Omega Viking Series

Ceremonial Drinking in the Viking Age
– Drinking Ceremonies
– Social Role
– Funeral Feasts
– Vowing over Toasts
– Seasonal Feasts and their Associated Libations

– Drinking Ceremoniesplayed – a very important – Social Role – in Viking Age Scandinavia and Anglo-Saxon England. This book will seek to illuminate these ceremonies by following the terms minni and bragarfull through the primary sources, and special note will also be taken of source age in order to ascertain how the depiction of these ceremonies changes over time.

– First the – Seasonal Feasts and their Associated Libations – will be studied and their association with kingship, law, and árs ok friðar will be examined.

Next we will look into – Funeral Feasts – and their – Memorial Toasts – which governed inheritance and the transfer of power. The Anglo-Saxon mead-cup ritual which served to stabilize society and foster group-cohesion will be examined, as will the Old Norse mead-cup analogues.
– Vowing over Toasts
Finally, the institution of – Vowing over Toasts – will be studied. In all of these traditions, the theme of alcohol as a strong social- stabilizer and a vehicle of social development is stressed.

List of other books in this series:

Related Keywords:
seasonal feasts
Norse mead-cup analogues
mighty drinking contest
to brew ale for a divine feast
Prose Edda
Snorri Sturluson
ritualized custom
Early Medieval and Viking Age drinking customs
Freyr’s Offspring
Sacral Kingship
Funeral Feasts and Toasts
Mead cup

Viking Treasure Hoarders Abroad (Omega Viking Series Book 4)

by Omega Viking Series

Norse Vikings went to areas such as Scotland and Ireland and their presence led to interaction with the native population. This interaction is known from written sources and is characterized by particular material expressions that can be seen in the archaeological record; such as settlements, burials and hoards. During the Viking Age silver hoards were buried in different places around Ireland. They contain combinations of arm-rings, ingots, hack-silver derived from arm-rings or ingots; and different types of coins. Artefacts such as neck-rings and brooches have also been found in hoards. The geographical distribution of hoards varies and the contents differ. The hoards have been studied in terms of chronology and artefact groups but few studies have examined all Viking Age silver hoards together. My aim is thus to discuss the geographical variation and varying contents of the silver hoards in relation to exchange networks and cultural identity in Viking Age Ireland, c. AD 800 to 1169/70.

Many hoards have been found in association with settlements while others are non-site- specific. Hoards that have been found in association with settlements can be divided into three groups:
1.Ecclesiastical sites (monasteries and church sites)
2.Secular Irish sites (ring-forts and crannóga)
3.Hiberno-Norse towns and trading settlements
The hoards from the different contexts will be compared to examine whether there is a difference between the hoards found in Irish and Hiberno-Norse contexts and at the same time highlight the differences between secular and ecclesiastical Irish hoards.

The contents and distribution of the hoards indicate that silver circulated between different sites in Viking Age Ireland: which and what types of sites seem to have been relevant to trade and exchange of silver? Relevant to this are the routes of communication involved. The main focus of the analysis will be economic. However, since there were two distinct ethnic groups present in Ireland in the Viking Age, I am also interested in the social context of the silver artefacts and the exchange of these. The trade in and subsequent use and/or deposition of silver artefacts were elements in the cultural relationship between these to groups.

Viking Treasure Hoarders Abroad
Irish Viking Age silver hoards
Hiberno-Norse towns
Gold and silver
AD 800 to 1169/70.
Hiberno-Norse towns and trading settlements
hoards as archaeological source material
theories of exchange, cultural identity and fragmentation
Previous research on silver hoards
Irish-Norse relations
With illustrations
hinterland of Dublin
Manufacture of silver artefacts
Categorizing the material
divides the hoards into coinless and coin hoards, the former being hoards with non-numismatic material only. The latter denotes hoards both with coins only and hoards with coins and non-numismatic material. This classification is also followed by Ã? Floinn
Class 1 hoards contain only complete ornaments
Class 2 contain only complete ingots
Class 3 hoards contain complete ornaments and ingots
Class 4 contain complete ornaments, ingots and hack-silver
Class 5 hoards contain only hack-silver
Brooch fragment
Loughcrew crannóg

Year 800-1030
Odin thor oseberg ship
Scandinavia year 800-1030
Viking age
Oseberg queen
Harald Bluetooth, Sweyn Forkbeard,
Viking Kings
Denmark and Norway Sweden
Eric Bloodaxe
Freydis Eriksdottir
Bjorn Ironside
Harald Hardrada
Erik the Red
Leif Erikson
Omega Viking Series

Queens of the Viking Age: The Oseberg Ship and the Oseberg Grave – Archeology (Omega Viking Series Book 3)

by Omega Viking Series

The Oseberg ship burial is a Viking Age burial mound containing a double female inhumation, which is located in the Oslofjord area in Norway. Through dendrochronological analysis it has been possible to determine the year in which the timbers of the grave chamber were felled, and the burial has consequently been dated to AD834.

A popular study of Oseberg has been that of focusing on the women buried in the mound in order to give them an identity. At first Snorri Sturluson’s Ynglingasaga was used and it was proposed that the burial was that of Queen Ã?sa or of Queen Alvhild, who are the only two queens mentioned in the saga.
There are many questions and mysteries about Oseberg that have not yet been answered. We still do not know for sure who was buried in the mound, what position this person held in society and why she was given such a large burial. It is also unclear whether one woman was the most important or whether the two were equally so, if they were related in some way or if they had similar functions in the community. I believe that Oseberg should be viewed within a wider context and compared to female high status burials from the Germanic Iron Age as well as to other burials from the Viking Age. Iron Age burials directly precede Viking Age ones, so that some of the particular characteristics of Oseberg might find an explanation in the earlier Germanic mortuary

The burial was formed by pulling a ship ashore, placing it in a trench, and building a grave chamber on its deck. The aft and fore of the ship, together with the grave chamber, were then filled with a large amount of grave goods; the fore of the ship was also occupied by many sacrificed animals which, because of their position, are thought to have been killed outside the ship and then placed on it.

The Oseberg mound was first excavated in 1903 and 1904, and since then it has been studied extensively. Many aspects of the burial have been considered by scholars, who have tried to reconstruct the events of the early 9th century in order to explain its grandness and significance.3 The mound has provided much interesting and unique archaeological material, thanks to the excellent preservation conditions which enabled wooden objects to survive underground for almost 1200 years.

Probably the most important part of this burial is the wonderfully carved ship, which is 21.5 meters/70.5 feet long and 5.1 meters/16.7 foot wide.4 This ship, an early Viking Age construction, was useful in increasing our knowledge of Viking age ship building and sailing. Although it is thought by some that it was not suitable for ocean voyages, it is nonetheless very well built and highly decorated.5 Other important finds from the burial include decorated wagons and sledges, a wide variety of everyday objects and some woven tapestries.
When first excavated, the burial was thought to be that of a Viking Age chieftain, but it soon became apparent that it was lacking the weapons and other artefacts common in male graves, whilst it abounded in everyday objects such as kitchen utensils, which are normally associated with females. The discovery of two human skeletons instead of one also came as a surprise.6 Further studies proved that the burial was a double female inhumation and this led to it being labelled “unique”. There has been much speculation about who was buried in the mound and about which one of the two skeletons was the most important figure.

Relevant Keywords:
Nordic Vikings
Medieval Culture
Viking Age Queens
Oseberg burial
Queen Ã?sa or of Queen Alvhild
Iron Age Germanic societies
pre-Christian customs
Iron Age Germanic
The ship
The human remains
The grave goods

The tapestries
The animal sacrifices
Evaluation of the richness of the Oseberg burial
Scandinavian Iron Age and Viking Age female high status burials
Three possible sorceress burials from Birka
containing a double female inhumation
Snorri Sturluson

THE SATANIC SKULL AND BONES WARS: (including the Illuminati connection)


See for the first time the proof of the long suspected connection between the evil, satanic European Illuminati and America’s Skull and Bones cult. This book will make your head spin and your heart drop.

The Power of Knowledge – HEMED: The Israeli Science Corps

by Uriel Bachrach

Uriel Bachrach was born in Germany in 1926 and immigrated to Palestine in 1933. In 1945 he began studying chemistry at The Hebrew University in Jerusalem. At the end of 1947, future Israeli prime minister David Ben-Gurion realized that once British forces left Palestine in May 1948, seven Arab countries would attack the newly formed Jewish state that at that time was home to only 600,000 peopleâ??including women, children, and the elderly, many of them Holocaust survivors.

The State had only 10,000 rifles and 3,800 pistols, no anti-tank weapons, and no artillery. Since weapons could not be purchased from other countries due to an embargo, Ben-Gurion decided to produce weapons locally. On February 2, 1948, Bachrach was summoned to a secret meeting where he and twenty chemistry and physics students were literally told to save the nation. For three weeks they studied the secrets of explosives, incendiaries, gas, and smoke. Gradually more young scientists joined the group and on March 17, 1948, an IDF Science Corps named HEMED was formed.

In 1949, Bachrach returned to The Hebrew University and became the chairman of the Department of Molecular Biology. He has been a visiting professor at various American and European universities and was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Bologna in Italy. The Hebrew version of this book was published in 2009 and the author received a special prize for the State of Israel from President Shimon Peres.

Uriel Bachrach continues to lecture in various forums about this unique chapter in Israel’s history.

â?«ØªØ§Ø±Ù?Ø® بابÙ? Ù?آشÙ?ر â?¬(Arabic Edition)

by جÙ?Ù?Ù? Ù?Ø®Ù?Ø© اÙ?Ù?دÙ?ر

500 Random Facts: about India (Trivia and Facts about the Countries Book 3)

by Lena Shaw

Did you know India is like no other place in the world? Do you like interesting random facts about this country – funny and sad, awesome and ridiculous, surprising and unbelievable? If your answer is YES, this book is for you.

500 Random Facts about India is the third book in the series Trivia and Facts about the Countries.
This book provides a lot of random facts about India. The content is unique and family-friendly. Some facts are completely crazy. Some of them are unexpected world records or just interesting things that happened somewhere in India centuries ago or maybe just a few weeks ago. Some of them are eye-opening statistics that will make you think more about your own life and priorities. In any case, all these facts are entertaining, exciting, and fun. And all of them have a connection with India and its people.

The examples of the random facts inside this book:

Over 11% of smokers in the world live in India.
About 22.2 million people in India are under trial. It is one of the biggest numbers in the world which is far more than the population of the Netherlands (17.04 million in 2017).
According to Forbes, the actor Shah Rukh Khan is ranked 65th in the list of the highest paid celebrities in the world.
India was an island about 100 million years ago, while Sri Lanka was connected to India back then.
In 2017, India’s capital city, New Delhi banned every single disposable plastic item including bags, cups, cutlery, etc.

and so on…

India is a beautiful, extravagant, unpredictable and unhacked. It is also one of the oldest cultures and civilizations on our planet. There are a lot of facts proving that India is really a very special country, and some of these facts are presented in this book.

Please check this book as soon as possible by clicking BUY NOW at the top of this page.
You may also download this book for FREE using Kindle Unlimited. Enjoy!

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